On the evening of December 1, Rosa Parks, an African American, was arrested for disobeying an Alabama law requiring black passengers to relinquish seats to white passengers when the bus was full. Blacks also were required to sit at the back of the bus.
Civil Rights Movement Timeline The civil rights movement was an organized effort by Black Americans to end racial discrimination and gain equal rights under the law.
Nonetheless, 70 percent or more riders on a typical day were Black, and on this day Rosa Parks was one of them. The three others obeyed.
Today in history - december 1
Nixon had hoped for years to find a courageous Black person of unquestioned honesty and integrity to become the plaintiff in a case that might become the test of the validity of segregation laws. Eventually, two police officers approached the stopped bus, assessed the situation and placed Parks in custody.
I was not tired physically… No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in. Nixon and some ministers decided to take advantage of the momentum, forming the Montgomery Improvement Association MIA to manage the boycott, and they elected Reverend Dr. As appeals and related lawsuits wended their way through the courts, all the way up to the U. Her husband, brother and mother all died of cancer between and Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
She left at 16, early in 11th grade, because she needed to care for her dying grandmother and, shortly thereafter, her chronically ill mother.
Recommended for you. By midnight, 35, flyers were being mimeographed to be sent home with Black schoolchildren, informing their parents of the planned boycott.
History Vault. He supported Rosa in her efforts to earn her high-school diploma, which she ultimately did the following year.
Led by a young Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. Supreme Court ruled that bus segregation was unconstitutional. Nine months before Parks was jailed, year-old Claudette Colvin was the first Montgomery bus passenger to be arrested for refusing to give up her seat for a Twelve years later, on December 1,on her way home from a long day of work as a department store Revered as a civil rights icon, Rosa Parks is best known for sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott, but her activism in the Black community predates that day.
Parks was not the first African American woman to be arrested for refusing to yield her seat on a Montgomery bus. However, it was only by custom that bus drivers had the authority to ask a Black person to give up a seat for a white rider. On Thursday, December 1,the year-old Rosa Parks was commuting home from a long day of work at the Montgomery Fair department store by bus. Although Parks used her one phone call to contact her husband, word of her arrest had spread quickly and E. Nixon was there when Parks was released on bail later that evening. It began in the late s and ended in the late s.
In Julythe Schomburg Center for Research in It was formed in New York City by white and Black activists, partially in response to the ongoing violence against Early in the evening on April 4,on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, a single bullet felled Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Known for his advocacy of nonviolent resistance to Live TV. This Day In History. Parks did not. Rosa Parks — helped initiate the civil rights movement in the United States when she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama bus in Her actions inspired the leaders of the local Black community to organize the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Meanwhile, Black participation in the boycott was much larger than even optimists in the community had anticipated.
But what happened next? The answer to that question just became more clear thanks to a new discovery: disintegrating court records that detail the legal The civil rights movement was an organized effort by Black Americans to end racial discrimination and gain equal rights under the law.
There were contradictory Montgomery laws on the books: One said segregation must be enforced, but another, largely ignored, said no person white or Black could be asked to give up a seat even if there were no other seat on the bus available. When Rosa Parks refused to give her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white man inshe was put in handcuffs and arrested.
Segregation was written into law; the front of a Montgomery bus was reserved for white citizens, and the seats behind them for Black citizens. Montgomery Bus Boycott. Over the next half-century, Parks became a nationally recognized symbol of dignity and strength in the struggle to end entrenched racial segregation. Although tumultuous at times, the movement was mostly nonviolent and resulted in laws to Especially one in which a prominent civil-rights figure delivers a stern rebuke to his race.
Although Raymond had ly discouraged her out of fear for her safety, in DecemberRosa also ed the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP and became chapter secretary. Hidden History: Park Avenue.
Her brother, Sylvester, was born inand shortly after that her parents separated. Black residents of Montgomery often avoided municipal buses if possible because they found the Negroes-in-back policy so demeaning. She worked closely with chapter president Edgar Daniel E. Nixon was a railroad porter known in the city as an advocate for Black people who wanted to register to vote, and also as president of the local branch of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union.