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The owner of a tannery and extensive property in PennsylvaniaWayne was commissioned a colonel in the Continental Army in January

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Most of its original inhabitants, especially those like the Miami who lived in the lower three states, would be removed within two generations. Such debates tend to be complicated by nostalgia and the impulse to preserve things as we are accustomed to them. But passing it is bringing up these points.


But the tribal confederation launched a surprise attack on his camp and essentially annihilated his army. As a principal Native American settlement under the control of the Miami tribe, it flourished for most of the 18th century because it controlled the shortest overland connection between two vast river networks, linking Quebec and the Great Lakes region to the Mississippi Valley and its seaport at New Orleans.

Native civilians fled as the invaders approached. Local public schools had taught us almost nothing about Wayne. After reading about the Battle of Stony Point inhe wrote a Facebook message to Arp pitching the notion. To the extent we thought about Wayne himself, the version we grew up with amounted to something like this: Indians had been giving settlers a hard time, and Wayne solved the problem.

His presentation detailed a military campaign in which Wayne defeated a regional alliance of native tribes, omitting most of the larger context about what had led to the war. He first floated the proposal later that year, but shelved it after it met little enthusiasm.

Whereas Hines had vehemently objected to the Wayne Day resolution, Paddock had not spoken up during the meeting, and then he ed the majority who voted for it.

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Wayne was an early American military leader who in built a frontier fort here, during the period when white settlers from the young United States were pushing west into the Ohio Valley and coming into conflict with Native Americans. No win. The government used the fort to distribute annual treaty payments it had promised the natives in exchange for giving up their lands.

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Not only had Wayne won the Northwest Indian War and established the outpost that grew into the city, but he had earlier won fame in the American Revolution for leading a charge that overran a British outpost at Stony Point, New York. Arp, too, saw the issue through the lens of Trump-era polarization. Like many other arguments in the Trump era, that question would soon boil over. The money attracted white traders who sold them manufactured goods and liquor, turning annuity days into exploitative bacchanals, contemporaneous s show.

InPresident Washington dispatched Harmar to lead 1, soldiers and Kentucky militia through the wilderness to attack Kekionga. The idea triggered an argument on the council as soon as Arp completed his presentation about Wayne. The people in the room might not have fully appreciated it when they arrived, but the culture wars had just come to Fort Wayne.

A quiet Indiana city declared a holiday to celebrate its founder. But after receiving a copy of the resolution, Gardner decided to read a biography of Wayne. I have no recollection of anyone explaining that the name of our main geographical feature—the Maumee River, which forms here where two lesser waterways merge and flows to Toledo, Ohio, where it empties into Lake Erie—came from the Miami tribe.

At first he had little interest in the debate. He had stood apart from most of his colleagues on the city council since his election inembodying a local version of the strain of Republican politics that branded itself as the Tea Party in opposition to Barack Obama and that has tightened its grip on the GOP in the Donald Trump era.

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Hopefully, we will get by this one. After a difficult winter, tribal leaders agreed to a landmark treaty ending the war. Coming to recognize that even if the tribes defeated Wayne, white Americans would just keep coming, Little Turtle now proposed seeking a diplomatic solution. So what was the actual history? He is also the author of Power Wars and Takeover. Between annuity days, the traders encouraged the tribes to buy on credit, running up debts that their existing payments could not cover.

In multi-state visit, secretary haaland highlights investments in tribal communities, climate resiliency, and conservation

As a piece of city business, having a day in Fort Wayne to honor Anthony Wayne might seem—from a distance at least—to be correcting an oversight. Wayne built a string of sturdy forts to protect his supply lines and guard against raids, including one he named Fort Recovery on the site of St. When the confederation tried to attack the new fort, its cannons inflicted heavy losses. One of the first people it started to scald was Geoff Paddockthe other Democrat on the city council. The lopsided outcome further emboldened the confederation and prompted the first congressional oversight investigation.

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This statue had been dedicated in with a patriotic speech by Vice President Thomas Marshall, a former Indiana governor. The council voted,to create Wayne Day. But the debate was just starting. His own daughters are home-schooled. Stacy Kranitz. Already a crucial hub, the cluster of native towns here then served as the military headquarters for a multi-tribal alliance—sometimes called the Western Confederacy—that battled white America for control of the entire Midwest after the Revolutionary War.

Wayne died soon after negotiating a peace treaty, but his conquest unleashed hundreds of thousands of white settlers to rapidly transform the Old Northwest into the new states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

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The most prominent was Chief Little Turtle of the Miami tribe, whose de facto capital town, Kekionga, had stood here long before Wayne came. The council president, John Crawforda radiation oncologist and moderate Republican, tried to tamp down the issue and suggested waiting a few weeks. So Washington tapped Wayne—a more disciplined leader who methodically trained his men—to build a new army and invade yet again.

But Arp insisted on voting—while sharply escalating his rhetoric. But untilit had stood east of downtown, in a park by Harmar Street. The names of tribes that originally lived here and their chiefs also adorn schools, streets, libraries and camps. The summer of has become a time of asking questions about what America commemorates and why. Wayne Day was different: This was an attempt to create something new. In Februaryhowever, he abruptly revived it and put forward his resolution.

Nor was I taught that as white Americans pushed west, the Miami invited refugee tribes dislodged from their homelands, the Shawnee and the Delaware, to resettle here.

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The nationwide Black Lives Matter protests that followed the police killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis are growing into a broader moment of reckoning, as the push to take down Confederate Civil War monuments expands into reconsidering statues and naming honors for historical figures like Christopher Columbus, Woodrow Wilson and Margaret Sanger.

In the period after Fort Wayne was built and before the natives were forced to leave, it could be an ugly place. Watching a video of this meeting later, this did not surprise me. On one level, to grow up in Fort Wayne was to be saturated in references to Anthony Wayne and the Native Americans he fought.

Cultural amnesia about the Northwest Indian War might seem more striking in a place like Fort Wayne, which was so central to the story, but it is national in scope. This feat, Arp said, had thwarted a British attempt to capture top American military leaders like George Washington and Henry Knox after the traitor Benedict Arnold had revealed their location. This land portage made it a crossro both for the lucrative North American fur trade, and for Algonquin tribes throughout what we now call the Midwest.

Beset by rising alcoholism and dependency on annuities, tribes in the region like the Miami declined, able neither to adapt to the new culture of private property and yeoman farming, as an aging Little Turtle urged, nor to preserve their way of life.

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But for a period, this spot was of singular importance in North America. Clair, tried again. The other Republican on the council who often voted in alignment with Arp, Paul Ensleyliked the idea. But these tensions usually flare around whether to take down existing things and retire established traditions.

The treaty of fort wayne, —a treaty that led to war—goes on exhibit

The main event would be a ceremony in a downtown square next to a bronze statue of Wayne on horseback, his sword drawn. Arp liked the idea of having the city do more to celebrate its ties to a swashbuckling Revolutionary-era warrior. Arp described this, in a way. Wayne demanded that the natives cede most of what is now the state of Ohio along with key tracts further west like the future downtowns of Chicago, Detroit, and Fort Wayne. My hometown is a rust-belt industrial city of a quarter-million people on the confluence of three slow rivers, today home to branches of several defense contractors and a regionally famous zoo.

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There are people who are just not patriotic. At the meeting, Arp, a stocky man in his mids with close-cropped hair, leaned back and put forward a glowing portrait of Wayne as native hero and role model, clicking through a slideshow. In the age of Trump, nothing is ever that simple. In the moment, Paddock later told me, his only thought was that it would look bad for the city if its council spurned its namesake. The fort that Wayne built here was soon abandoned by the army as the frontier kept shifting west, and while the white settlement that grew up around the site boomed for a period as an industrial center, it was always man minor place compared with other cities that grew up around frontier forts in the Midwest, especially Chicago and Detroit.

A former mortgage-backed securities trader who told me he primarily lives off his investments, he voted against budgets and redevelopment project subsidies that the council nevertheless passed; he unsuccessfully proposed to eliminate a tax that funds local libraries and public schools. The goal was to punish into submission the tribes that were attacking backcountry white settlers spreading down the Ohio River, many of Wayne were carving out homeste on lands they had no clear right to be on.

Arp pitched his Wayne Day resolution at a moment when he needed to shore up support and attract attention. The tribal confederation saw them as illegal squatters on unceded territory and wanted to push them back across the Appalachian Date it refused even to discuss a treaty to sell its homelands and hunting grounds. Loomis created a nonprofit organization to plan Wayne Day, listing himself as chairman and Arp as chief executive officer.

The council meeting went on to address more typical business, like approving a Fort contract for a water treatment plant.

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Though Arp was one of seven Republicans on the nine-member council, he often found himself fighting against the majority in his own party, as well as the two Democrats.